Cushing’s disease is a disorder of the pituitary gland in which too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is produced by a pituitary tumor, which in turn stimulates excess production of the stress hormone cortisol.
Cushing’s disease is one form of Cushing syndrome, which is the condition that results from overexposure to cortisol. Not everyone with Cushing syndrome has Cushing’s disease. Several things may cause high levels of cortisol (long term-use of corticosteroid medications like prednisone, ACTH producing tumors outside of the pituitary gland, cortisol producing adrenal tumors), but when the excess is being triggered by a pituitary tumor, the individual is diagnosed with Cushing’s disease. (Some tumors of the pituitary gland are “functioning” tumors, meaning that they take on a function of the gland itself by producing a hormone.)
See: "It Started With My Skin" (A Cushing's Disease Story)
Cortisol plays a role in the evolutionary “fight or flight” response — the hormone is released along with adrenaline and noradrenaline in short-term stress situations. A surge of cortisol helps the body respond to an immediate threat, but the hormone has negative effects when produced continually instead of in short bursts. An individual exposed to excess cortisol levels on an ongoing basis may develop a characteristic “moon face” (moon facies), upper-body obesity and fat deposits, muscle weakness, and bone thinning, among other symptoms. Left untreated, Cushing’s disease can ultimately be fatal, but fortunately there are effective treatments for the disorder. (See Diagnosing and Treating Cushing’s Disease.)
Both Cushing’s disease and Cushing syndrome are named after Harvey Williams Cushing, a prominent neurosurgeon in the early twentieth century who is often called “the father of modern neurosurgery.” Dr. Cushing was a pioneering investigator of pituitary function and dysfunction, and he was the first to associate the pituitary gland with the classic symptoms of the disorders named for him.
What Causes Cushing’s Disease?
Cushing’s disease is most often caused by a benign pituitary tumor that produces cortisol. Removing the tumor often resolves the condition. (Find out more about surgery for a pituitary tumor.)
Request an Appointment | Refer a Patient
Reviewed by: Georgiana Dobri, M.D.
Last reviewed/last updated: December 2020
Illustration by Thom Graves, CMI
Our Care Team
- Vice Chair for Clinical Research
- David and Ursel Barnes Professor in Minimally Invasive Surgery
- Professor of Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Otolaryngology
- Director, Center for Epilepsy and Pituitary Surgery
- Co-Director, Surgical Neuro-oncology
- Assistant Professor of Neurological Surgery
- Leon Levy Research Fellow
- Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute
- Assistant Professor of Neuroendocrinology in Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine
- Director, Neurosurgical Radiosurgery
- Professor of Clinical Neurological Surgery
- Robert G. Schwager, MD ’67 Education Scholar, Cornell University
- Chief of Neurological Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian Queens
- Co-director, Weill Cornell Medicine CSF Leak Program
- Chief of Neurological Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist
- Alvina and Willis Murphy Associate Professor, Neurological Surgery
- Director, Brain Metastases Program
- Co-director, William Rhodes and Louise Tilzer-Rhodes Center for Glioblastoma